
Calculus I Brain Summary
Malcolm E. Hays 28
October 2002 
This is a list of all the
thoughts located in the Calculus I Brain.
Each thought is followed by a statement indicating the content
associated by that thought. Italicized
thoughts are all example problems.
Thoughts followed by (jump) are jump thoughts, which are located on
the left hand side of the central thought in the Brain matrix. Jump thoughts often take the user to
entirely different sections of the Brain or provide reference information
about the central thought. 

Review of Basic Concepts  A short refresher course of concepts covered in Algebra, Trig and Geometry Cartesian Plane  A brief discussion about the Cartesian plan and how it works Definition of Circle in Plane  Gives the standard equation of a circle Distance Formula  Just what it says Midpoint Formula  Just what it says Standard Form of Circle  Same as "Definition of Circle in Plane" Function Review  Explanation of function notation and how a function is defined Function Representation  Equivalent means of representation of functions Examples  An example of how we utilize function representation Translation/Combination  Shifting functions around the Cartesian plane Composition Examples  Examples of composing two functions with each other Even More Examples  2 examples of real world applications Trans/Combo Examples  Yet more examples involving shifting graphs of functions around the Cartesian Plane Trig Example  A graph showing how to scale trig functions based on amplitude and frequency Types of Functions  A brief summary of the different kinds of functions and properties of said functions Geometry Review  A brief reminder of the various formulas involving geometric shapes Related Rates (jump)  This link takes you to the area of Related Rates in Differentiation, Circles  Area, circumference of different shapes based on circles, such as ellipses, sectors, and rings Triangles  Includes equilateral, right, and general triangle formulas Other  Other common geometric shapes such as trapezoids and parallelograms Volumes  Formulas of 3dimensional shapes such as cones, spheres, and wedges Real Numbers and Number Line  Review of key concepts about real numbers, important to understanding calculus Absolute Value  Definition and properties of the absolute value operator Definition of Order  Basically a review of inequalities and intervals Intervals  Intervals and their notation as used in mathematics Properties of Inequalities  Just what it sounds like Limits  An introduction to limits with an informal definition Example Problems (jump)  Several examples of limits using the informal definition Example 1  Uses a technique to factor a denominator and cancel like terms Example 2  A special trick is introduced to eliminate a hostile term to make the limit easier to evaluate Example 3  Rationalization of the expression to get rid of radical signs Limits at Infinity (jump)  More fully covered under Differentiation  Advanced Principles Basic Limits  3 simple formulas for evaluating limits of a particular form Functions vs. Limits  A brief discussion of the difference between a function and a limit Continuity and OneSided Limits  Definition of continuity (and discontinuity) Continuity on Closed Interval  Definition of what it means to be continuous on a closed interval Existence of a Limit  Definition of when a (twosided) limit exists Example  Shows an example of when a (twosided) limit does not exist Intermediate Value Theorem  A brief discussion of the IVT and how it works graphically OneSided Limits  Explanation of what they are, including a Flash Video Example Properties of Continuity  Several common properties exploited by various functions DeltaEpsilon Definition  The formal definition of what a limit actually is, explained in graphical terms Example
1  Shows how to use the DE Definition, using
a specified value of Example 2  Shows how to choose
a value for Example
3  Uses a graph to find a particular value for
Infinite Limits  Explanation of
what happens when a given limit equals Properties  Several
characteristic properties of what happens when limits equal Vertical Asymptotes  The graphical explanation of infinite limits Properties of Limits  Just what it sounds like Example 1  Finding the limit using a trick of factoring, then canceling factors Example 2  Finding the limit by rationalizing the numerator Example 3  Finding the limit using a trick of finding the least common denominator Example 4  Finding the limit of a function involving absolute values Special Limits  A list of limits of different types of functions Composite Functions  Limit of two functions composed with each other Polynomial Functions  Limit of a polynomial function Radical
Functions  Limit of a function involving a Rational Functions  Limit of one polynomial function divided by another Trig Functions  Limit of sine, cosine, tangent and their associated cofunctions Squeeze Theorem  How to find the limit of a function through indirect means Example  An application of the Squeeze Theorem Tangent Line Problem  The problem which gave rise to the differentiation side of calculus Derivative at a Point  Basic definition of what the derivative is in graphical terms including a Flash Video Example Derivative as a Function  How to find the slope of a function at any point on the curve Example  Uses the definition of the derivative to find the slope of a function Derivative Notation  Various ways in which we can express the notion of a derivative Graphing the Derivative  How to graph the derivative based on key points Differentiability and Continuity  Any function that is differentiable is by definition also continuous Tangent
Line Examples Example 1  How to find the tangent line to a graph using a process of estimation Example 2  Uses the definition of the derivative at a point to find the tangent line to a curve Example 3  Finding the slope of a tangent line and a secant line connecting two points on a curve Differentiation  One of the two elemental concepts in calculus, concerning the slope of a function at any point Definitions (jump)  Basic concepts, mostly covered under the Tangent Line Problem (see above) Basic Principles  Elementary rules and applications of differentiation Applications  The two most basic applications are Related Rates and Rates of Change Examples (jump)  3 common examples of differentiation as used in physics and geometry Circle  The rate of change of the area of an expanding circle Optics  The rate of change of the focal length of a doubleconvex lens PressureVolume  The rate of change of volume with respect to time as pressure increases Rates of Change  One of the fundamental definitions of the derivative Acceleration  The rate of change of velocity with respect to time Velocity  The rate of change of position with respect to time Average Velocity  The sort of velocity we usually deal with Instantaneous Velocity  The calculus brand of velocity Related Rates  Changing the rate of one variable with respect to another rate of change (Flash Video Example) Chain Rule (jump)  A link to the Chain Rule, which is instrumental in solving this type of problem Geometry Review (jump)  Another key element to solving Related Rates problems is understanding geometry Method – Solving Related Rates (jump)  A brief summary of how to solve this type of problem Example 1  Find the change in height given a particular change in volume Example 2  Ideal Gas Law example finding change in volume given a change in pressure Example 3  Generic related rates example Higher Order Derivatives  How to find the second, third and so on derivatives of a given function More on Higher Order Derivatives  Further explanation on Higher Order Derivatives Implicit Differentiation  A method of differentiating a function indirectly Method of Implicit Diff (jump)  A summary of the technique of Implicit Differentiation Example 1  Polynomial function example Example 2  Trigonometric function example Linear Approximations  Definition of the linearization of a function Examples
(jump) Example 1  Generic polynomial function example Example 2  Example involving the accuracy of the approximation Differentials  Definition of the differential and its graphical representation General Formulas (jump)  Basic formulas involving differentials similar to those for derivatives Example 1  Generic examples on how to find the differential of a given function Example 2  Slightly more complicated example using differentials Relative
Size  Shows how big Rules  The various elementary rules governing the derivative operator Rules Summary (jump)  A list of all the rules for easy reference Examples  Several examples using the rules of
differentiation Ex 1 – 4  Examples 1 through 4 Example 1 Example
2 Example
3 Example
4 Ex 5 – 7  Examples 5
through 7 Example 5 Example
6 Example
7
Chain Rule  The cornerstone of differentiation and without which calculus would be impossible Related Rates (jump)  Related Rates uses the Chain Rule extensively Example 1  Simple example of the Chain Rule Example 2  Much more complicated example involving the graphical shape known as the Witch of Maria Agnesi Constant Multiple Rule  The constant can be factored out before differentiating the function Power Rules  How to differentiate a function raised to a power General Power Rule  Power Rule involving use of the Chain Rule Power Rule  Simplest form of the General Power Rule, where u(x) = x Example 4  Several examples showing how to use various rules of differentiation Product Rule  How to differentiate two functions multiplied together Product Rule Example  Several examples of how to apply the Product Rule Quotient Rule  How to differentiate a rational function Example 2  Same as Example 2 under Chain Rule Sum/Difference Rules  How to differentiate the sum of two functions Example 4  Same as Example 4 under Power Rule Trig Function Rules  How to differentiate any of the six trig functions Sin/Cos  Differentiation of sine and cosine Tan/Cot/Sec/Csc  Differentiation of tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant Advanced Principles  More advanced ideas about differentiation such as Extrema and Rolle's Theorem Business and Econ  Common formulas encountered in business and economic applications Concavity  Description of functions based on how much it curves Example (jump)  A comprehensive example looking at the complete description of a function Points of Inflection  The points on a curve at which the concavity changes from positive to negative and vice versa Second Derivative Test  A test for finding points of relative extrema Test for Concavity  How to determine if a function is concave up/down Limits
at Infinity  What happens to the limit of a function as
x Limits (jump)  A link to the basic concepts of limits Formal Definitions  The DeltaEpsilon Definition as applied to limits at infinity Horizontal Asymptotes  The graphical interpretation of limits at infinity (as opposed to infinite limits) Rational
Limit at Infinity Min/Max Values  The relative extrema of a functions, with Flash Video Example Example 1 (jump)  How to use a graph to find relative extrema Example
2 (jump) Extrema  The high and low points on the graph of a function Examples
(jump) Example 1  Finding the absolute extrema of a function Example 2  Proving that a given function has no extrema Guidelines (jump)  A brief summary of how to find the extrema of a function Critical Numbers  The values used to determine extrema, since extrema can only occur at critical numbers Extreme Value Theorem  On any given closed interval, there is at least one maximum and minimum First Derivative Test  How to determine if a critical number is a maxima or minima Increasing/Decreasing Functions  Basic definition Guidelines (jump)  Summary of how to find intervals of increase and decrease Test for Finding Inc/Dec Functions  Just what it sounds like Relative Extrema  Basic definition Example
1  Find the seventh root of 3 using Example 2  Find the indicated root of an equation to the desired accuracy Optimization Problems  Applications of extrema Example 1  Fencing in a field using a fixed length of fence and maximizing the area enclosed Example 2  Find the specified volume of a box using the minimum amount of material Rolle's Theorem  An existence theorem for critical points Mean Value Theorem  Application of Rolle's Theorem Cauchy MVT (jump)  Broader explanation of the Mean Value Theorem Example  Application of the Mean Value Theorem involving the speed of a car Integration  The other
fundamental concept covered in calculus, concerning the area underneath a
curve Basic Integration Formulas (jump)  A summary of the most commonly used integration formulas Guidelines for Integration (jump)  A set of steps for approaching problems involving integrals Procedures (jump)  How to transform certain integrands to fit a particular integration formula Basics  The basic concept of the integral and its associated properties Antiderivatives  One interpretation of the indefinite integral Basic Rules (jump)  A list of simple integration formulas Examples Example 1  Finding the antiderivative of a polynomial function Example 2  Finding the linear density of a rod Example 3  Finding the height of a cliff by dropping a stone off of it Integral Notation  The most common means of representing integrals in mathematics Area  The problem for which the definite integral was developed to solve Area of Region in Plane  How to find the area of a planar region Limit of Lower/Upper Sums  A prelude to the infamous Riemann Sum Example 1  Using lower/upper sums to approximate the area under curve Sigma Notation  Definition of what sigma notation actually means Riemann Sums (jump)  A link to the Riemann Sum, which sets the stage for the Definite Integral Summation Formulas  Common summation formulas Summation Properties  Properties of summation along with proofs of those properties Definite Integral  The area under a curve Examples
(jump) Example 1  Sketch a defined region, then find its area Example 2  Evaluate a Riemann Sum Example 3  Evaluate a Definite Integral Area of a Region  What the Definite Integral is used for Properties Additive Interval Property  Separating one integral into two integrals Basic Properties  Fundamental properties associated with the Definite Integral Midpoint Rule of Integrals  A rule used for approximation of an area Preservation of Inequality  Definite Integrals obey same laws of inequality as any real number Riemann Sums  Formal explanation of Definite Integral Sigma Notation (jump)  Link back to sigma notation for more clarification of Riemann Sums Fundamental Theorem  The link between differentiation and integration Examples
(jump) Example 1  Evaluate several definite integrals Example 2  Find the area of a region Example 3  Find the area of a region 2nd Fundamental Theorem  The other link between differentiation and integration Example 1  Integrate a function using the 2nd Fundamental Theorem Example 2  Find the derivative of a function with the 2nd Fundamental Theorem Example 3  Find the derivative of a function Example 4  Find the derivative of a function Average Value on an Interval  How to find the average value of a function over a particular interval Example 1  Sketch the graph of a function and find its average value MVT for Integrals  The Mean Value Theorem as it applies to integrals Example 1  Find the mean value of an integral Integration by Substitution  The most fundamental and widely used technique of integration Guidelines (jump)  A summary of the technique Change of Variables  Also known as usubstitution CV for Definite Integrals  usubstitution as it applies to the Definite Integral Example 1  Evaluate a definite integral using usubstitution Example 2  Evaluate a definite integral using usubstitution Even and Odd Functions  How to integrate even and odd functions General Power Rule  The General Power Rule of Differentiation in reverse Integration of Composite Function  What usubstitution is really all about Numerical Integration  Approximation methods of integration Error  The difference between the approximation and the actual value Integrals of Quadratics  How to quickly integrate a 2nd degree polynomial Simpson's Rule  Approximating an integral using 2nd degree polynomials Trapezoidal Rule  Approximating an integral by adding up trapezoids instead of rectangles Techniques  Various techniques for evaluating integrals Improper Integrals  Integrals involving infinite limits of integration Infinite
Discontinuity  Place where the integrand equals Special Type  A special type of improper integral based on geometric series Indeterminate Forms  Numbers
involving 0 and L'Hôpital's Rule  Method to transform Indeterminate Forms into determinate forms Integration by Parts  How to integrate two functions multiplied together Guidelines (jump)  A quick summary of IBP Common Integrals  A short list of integrals that can be solved by IBP relatively easily Partial Fractions  A technique for integrating rational functions Guidelines (jump)  A quick summary of how to apply Partial Fractions Trig Substitution  Integration technique involving transforming integrands into products of powers of trig functions Special Formulas  Commonly occurring integration formulas Trigonometric Integrals  Integration technique involving products of powers of trig functions Wallis's Formulas (jump)  Special formula for evaluating cos(x) raised to some power Integrals w/ Sec/Tan  Integration of powers of secant and tangent functions Integrals w/ Sin/Cos  Integration of powers of sine and cosine functions Applications  Real world type applications of the Definite Integral Arc Length  How arc length of a function is defined Examples
(jump) Example 1  Finding the length of an arc over a given interval Area of Surface of Revolution  How to find the surface area of a function revolved about an axis Surface of Revolution  What happens when a function is revolved about an axis Area Between 2 Curves  How to find the area enclosed by two given functions Example 1  Find the area of a shaded region Example 2  Find the area of a shaded region shaped like a tiefighter Fluid Pressure and Force  The force per unit area exerted by a fluid such as water or air Fluid Force  The force exerted on a surface by a fluid such as water or air Moments
and Centers of Mass 2D System Moments  Expanding moments of a system from a line into a plane Linear System Moments  Point around which various masses cancel each other out to maintain a certain equlibrium Planar Lamina  A continuous flat sheet of uniform density Theorem of Pappus  How to find the volume of an object based on its centroid revolved around an axis Volume of Revolution  What happens when a curve is revolved around an axis Shell Method  One of two methods used to find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 1  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 2  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 3  Find the volume of a solid of revolution, except use both the Shell Method and the Washer Method Solution: Shell Method  One of 2 ways to solve Example 3 Solution: Washer Method  One of 2 ways to solve Example 3 Washer Method  The other of two methods used to find the volume of a solid of revolution Disc Method  A special case of the Washer Method, where the inner radius of the washer equals zero Example 1  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 2  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Solids w/Known Cross Sections  Quick summary of formulas for solids whose crosssections are known Washer Method  The full explanation of the Washer Method Example 1  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 2  Find the volume of a solid of revolution Example 3  Find the volume of a solid of revolution, but use both the Shell Method and the Washer Method Solution: Shell Method  One of 2 ways to solve Example 3 Solution: Washer Method  One of 2 ways to solve Example 3 Work  One of the most common applications of calculus, involving a force moving an object over some distance Work Done by a Variable Force  The work done by a force that is changing at some given rate Example
(jump) Example 1  Find the work done by a cable lifting a car up a mine shaft Example 2  Find the work required to empty a tank full of water Example 3  Find the work required to empty a tank full of gasoline Coulomb's Law  Work done by moving charged particles around Hooke's Law  Work performed by springs Example 1  Find the work required to stretch a spring Law of Universal Gravitation  Work performed by any two masses (such as the Earth and the Moon) Example 1  Find the work required to put a satellite in geostationary orbit 
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